Electronic mail (email) is a simplified way to send messages between devices. Originally designed for communication within devices, the system has since been expanded to include external email addresses and networks.

When the email first spread, its use was limited as some users could only send emails to someone using the same computer. This meant that both sender and recipient had to be online at the same time.

Email was invented in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson. The first system he created could send messages across different servers on the ARPANET and, through a sign in and user name, it became popular with various users later that decade.

If we look into the way emails are encoded, they usually take on ASCII text. However, email users can also send video files, images and audio as attachments. Amazingly, email was both the first-ever feature available at the dawn of the internet and one of its most popular features still today. It is a widely used medium for exchanging messages and data.

This program operates across computer networks. Nowadays, email systems are based on an accept, forward, deliver, and store messages model. Today users can access their messages from any device or be online at the same time as long as they connect to a webmail interface or mail server.

Just like an old paper, email did its job. An email account functions similarly to a mailbox in which the message is stored until it is read by the user.

What will we learn?

  • Functionality

1. Standard Fields

2. Optional Fields

3. Classification

  • Advantages
  • History


Emails are part of two protocols that facilitate communication on the TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is a standard protocol for sending emails while POP3 is a popular protocol for receiving them.

There are various applications and programs that can access your email account, including Microsoft Outlook for desktop systems or laptop with Microsoft Operating System versions, Gmail in both iOS devices (e.g., iPhones) and Android operating systems. An email has many important data fields that provide specific benefits.

To: This |TO| section of the email is designed to store the recipients address. If you need to send a message, TO must be filled in with an email address for this purpose.

Subject: Adding a subject line to an email will help with the recipient’s search through the email. However, if you know what you want to write about in advance, then it is not necessary.

Body: This is the most important part of your email. It contains all the important information, including text and images for images, or attachments (if necessary)

Optional Fields

From: An email address will appear in this section. This cant be changed unless the user has more than one email associated with the account.

Attachments: Attachments are optional input text fields where you can upload the files that go with your email message. They could be video clips, audio or images.

CC: CC stands for Carbon Copy. This option when filed allows a composer to send the email to multiple addresses rather than just one at a time.

BCC: BCC means Blind Carbon Copy which is a type of CC where the recipients name and email address remains hidden.


Email Program - Email programs are available on smartphones, tablets, PDAs, and computers. Even when they use different operating systems (such as iOS or Android), they have similar features in their email app. They also store messages on the user’s computer and deliver them through a server. Most often these servers belong to an Internet service provider (ISP).

Online Email -Unlike an email client on your computer, online emails (aka email services or webmails) dont reach the device directly. Instead, they need a browser for navigation. With most of these services being free to use, it makes sense to give them a try if you haven’t already.


Free Delivery - If we compare email to traditional methods of sending messages, such as post cards or letters, there is no need for you to waste your time and money on a stamp because emails are delivered free.

Global Delivery - An email message sent from one part of the world can be accessed from any other region, so if a user wishes to receive an email at another location, it will still be viewable.

Instant Delivery - Sending emails in the old traditional ways typically took more than a few days for them to reach their recipient. Whether email messages are sent in real-time, theyre received instantly by the recipient (provided you have decent internet speeds). One advantage of email is how quickly its delivered; another is that users dont need to wait for days or weeks

File Attachment - The emails instant and free delivery feature makes it easier to send attachments like images, documents, videos, audio files and encourages the flow of information.

Long-term Storage - Email is an excellent storage location for old messages, as it allows you to view, save, and archive digital information.

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